Perampanel is a highly selective and noncompetitive α-amino-3 -hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor (AMPAR) antagonist, which has been used as an orally administered antiepileptic drug in more than 55 countries. Recently, perampanel was shown to exert neuroprotective effects in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke models via regulating blood-brain barrier (BBB) function.
Here, the protective effects of perampanel were investigated in an in vitro neurovascular unit (NVU) system established using a triple cell co-culture model (neurons, astrocytes, and brain microvascular endothelial cells) and in an in vivo traumatic brain injury (TBI) model.
Neurons in the NVU system exhibit a more mature morphological phenotype compared with neurons cultured alone, and the co-culture system mimicked an impermeable barrier in vitro. Perampanel protects the NVU system against traumatic and excitotoxic injury, as evidenced by reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and apoptotic rate. Treatment with perampanel attenuated lipid peroxidation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, perampanel increased Sirt3 protein expression, enhanced the activities of mitochondrial enzyme IDH2 and SOD2, and preserved BBB function in vitro. Knockdown of Sirt3 using specific siRNA (Si-Sirt3) partially reserved the effects of perampanel on neuronal injury and BBB function. Treatment with perampanel in vivo attenuated brain edema, preserved neurological function, inhibited apoptosis and microglia activation after TBI. Furthermore, perampanel increased the expression of Sirt3 and preserved BBB function after TBI. The effect of perampanel on BBB function and brain edema was abolished by knockdown of Sirt3 in vivo.
Our results indicate that the noncompetitive AMPAR antagonist perampanel protects the NVU system and reduces brain damage after TBI via activating the Sirt3 cascades.
© 2021 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.