This study aimed to investigate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), antidiabetic therapy, hypothyroidism, and thyroid cancer. We analyzed data from 320 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for suspicion of cancer. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was confirmed by histopathological analysis in 95 patients. No significant difference was found in the diagnosis of T2DM and hypothyroidism concerning the presence of thyroid cancer (p=0.13; p=0.85), nor in the gender of patients with T2DM and hypothyroidism with respect to the type of thyroid cancer (p=0.19; p=0.25). Patients with T2DM (Odds ratio [OR] 1.89; 95% CI, 0.856-4.163) and patients with hypothyroidism (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.530-2.164) had higher prevalence of thyroid cancer, as did those who had both diagnoses combined (p=0.37; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 0.333-17.278), compared with the patients who did not have those diagnoses. Men with T2DM (OR, 6.19; 95% CI, 1.180-32.513) had higher prevalence of thyroid cancer than women. Patients who were on oral antidiabetics (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.804-4.512) had higher prevalence of thyroid cancer than those receiving insulin. According to the results of this study, we can conclude that there is an association between T2DM, hypothyroidism, oral antidiabetics, and thyroid cancer.