In the past 50 years, bone anchored prostheses have evolved from a concept for experimental treatment to a rapidly developing area in orthopedics and traumatology. Up to date, there are dozens of centers in the world providing osseointegration amputation reconstructions and more than a thousand patients using the bone anchored prostheses. Compared with conventional socket prostheses, the bone anchored prosthesis by osseointegration avoids the debilitating problems related with soft tissues. It also provides physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion, and sensory feedback, all of which contribute to the improvement on quality of life for amputees. The present article briefly reviews the historical development of osseointegration surgery for amputation reconstruction and the current challenges. The implant design characters and surgical techniques of the two types of implants; the screw-type implant (presented by the OPRA system), and the press-fit implants (presented by EEP and OPL systems) are described. The major complications, infections and mechanical failures, are discussed in detail based on the latest evidence. Future aspects and experimental trials aiming to overcome the current challenges are presented.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.