Clinicians treating end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and kidney transplant patients face unique challenges in their care because of the high burden of frailty in these patients. Frailty has gained significant attention by medical and surgical specialties for risk stratification in the past decades. This review highlights the importance of measuring frailty in kidney transplant candidates and recipients.
Emerging data support that frailty is present even at younger ages among patients undergoing dialysis, transplant evaluation, or transplantation. It is estimated that 18.8% of younger (18-64 years) candidates, 25.2% of older (≥65 years) candidates, 14.3% of younger recipients, and 20.8% of older recipients are frail. Additionally, frailty is dynamic and subject to change pretransplantation and posttransplantation. Although many patients and clinicians are aware of the importance of measuring frailty, further studies addressing the need for interventions to reduce frailty burden are needed.
Frailty is independently associated with many adverse outcomes in ESKD and kidney transplant populations. Given the growing number of ESKD and kidney transplant patients, it is pivotal to expand the utility of frailty measurement in clinical practice, recognize the burden of frailty, and identify appropriate interventions to mitigate the adverse effects of frailty.

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