The purpose of the review is to determine the relationship between the clinical symptoms of diseases and disorders of the motor function of the esophagus, stomach and duodenal bulb, to present modern methods of their diagnosis and pathogenetic principles of treatment of diseases. Depending on the pathogenesis, it is possible to distinguish secondary motility disorders resulting from organic lesions, and primary (functional) changes. The emergence of clinical symptoms is associated with impaired motor – evacuation function of the digestive tract, which can be divided into two large groups: changes in the peristaltic activity of the organ wall and the work of the sphincter apparatus. The basis of the regulation of motility of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum is the interaction of nervous and humoral factors, the central processing of impulses is carried out in the cerebral cortex. In case of violation of the coordinated action of inhibitory and excitatory regulation systems, pathological contractile activity occurs, which manifests itself as hypo – or hyper – motor dyskinesia. X-ray, ultrasound, high resolution manometry of the esophagus, pH-meter, scintigraphy, computed tomography, antroduodenal manometry and a number of others are used to diagnose disorders of the motor function of the digestive tract, which can determine the mechanism of the development of symptoms and prescribe pathogenetic treatment to the patient. Thus, the occurrence of clinical symptoms is associated with changes in the motor – evacuation function of the digestive tract due to a violation of the coordinating action of inhibitory and excitatory factors. The use of modern diagnostic methods for the study of motor function makes it possible to determine the mechanism for the development of clinical symptoms, which allows the patient to prescribe an effective pathogenetic treatment.

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PubMed