To validate a novel wearable device that can measure both viewing distance and light exposure, Clouclip, and compare questionnaire estimates regarding near-work and outdoor time with the objective measures obtained using Clouclip.
Fifteen Clouclips were selected to measure different distances and levels of illuminance. With each Clouclip, five measurements at different distances and light intensities were measured and recorded. Eighty participants wore Clouclips for a week and completed an activity questionnaire afterwards.
The intra- and inter-Clouclip coefficients were 1.00 and 0.99 for measuring distance and 1.00 and 1.00 for illuminance, respectively. Within the measurement limit, the maximum relative error was 2.07% for distance and 2.23% for illuminance. Assuming that 1000 Lux was the typical cut-off for outdoor environments, the questionnaire showed a trend of overestimation for both. The greatest overestimation of near-work occurred during the school period [Questionnaire: 4.73 hr (4.73, 5.07) versus Clouclip: 2.16 hr (1.74, 2.78); p < 0.01]. The greatest overestimation of outdoor activity also occurred during the school period [Questionnaire: 1.60 hr (1.33, 1.85) versus Clouclip: 1.21 hr (0.96, 1.50); p < 0.01]. Based on Clouclip, the total time spent outdoors was estimated to be 1.55 hr on school days, of which 0.34 hr occurred after school. For weekend days, however, the duration was only 0.17 hr.
Clouclip had excellent precision and accuracy. Although the agreement between the questionnaire and Clouclip was relatively poor, they were able to complement each other to provide a more logical and feasible assessment of exposure to near-work and outdoor activity. Indoor-oriented lifestyles were found to predominate in Chinese children.

© 2021 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.