The Sars COV-2 infection causing the covid-19 disease has started in December 2019 inWuhan, China, then spread quickly to more than 100 countries in less than 3 months. On March, 11th the WHO declared officially the pandemic of Covid 19. In the absence of an effective treatment of the SARS-Cov2 the measures of social distancing and lockdown remain the most effectives ways against the pandemic. However, these measures can have repercussions in particular on patients followed for chronic diseases, the goal of our study will be to evaluate the impact of the lockdown on non-Covid cardiac patients.
We have chosen a random sample of patients followed in the cardiology department of the CHU Tangier Tetouan Alhouceima, and we collected their demographic data as well as the symptoms, vital constants, lifestyle before and 60 days after the lockdown.
A total of 100 patients were included in the study. The average age of our population is 55.34 years±15.86. The average BMI (body mass index) is 26.40 Kg/m±5.84. The coronary artery disease was present in 27% of the patients, valvular disease in 40% and heart failure in 37%. Finally, arrhythmias appear in 22% and more than the half of our sample has high blood pressure. We noted a significant weight gain of 1.71 Kg (P<0.000) after 60 days of lockdown, with an increase of BMI of 0,58 kg/m (P<0,005). The percentage of patients with SBP (systolic blood pressure) ≥140mmHg has evolved from 38 to 44%, thus an increase of 6 % (P<0,0001), while the percentage of the patients with DBP (diastolic blood pressure) ≥90mmHg has passed from 21 to 15 % (thus a decrease of 6 %, P<0,0001). Twenty patients stop smoking, thus a decrease of 7% (P<0,0001). The sedentary lifestyle rate presented an elevation of 22% (P<0,0001). The daily calorie intake has increased of 35,4 % and 46,8 % of the patients increased their salt intake by more than 4 g per day. The increase of the daily calorie intake concerned more the men than the women (41,9 % of men vs 31,3 % of the women). In the population with high blood pressure, we have not observed a statistically significant difference of the SBP, the DBP and the heart rate between the beginning and two months after the lockdown. Concerning patients with heart Failure, we have noted an worsen of the symptoms of HF. Thus, 8,1% of the patients presenting a stage two dyspnea has passed to a stage three of the NYHA (32,4 vs 40,5%), while the percentage of patients with lower limbs edema has increased of 13,5% but in a non-statistically significant way (P=0,267). We have noticed a diet gap with an increase of salt intakes (more than 4g per day) in more than the half of this subpopulation (55,6 %) during the period of the lockdown. In the subpopulation of patients with valvular pathology, we have identified a worsening of the dyspnea in 7,5% of the patients; this one has passed from stage two to stage three of the NHYA with an increase of the percentage of patients with lower limbs edema from 7,5% to 25% (P=0,065). Furthermore, we have noticed an incidence of 10% of cardiovascular events (2 cases of myocardial infarction [among which one has deceased], one death because of end stage heart failure, three hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, two cases of aortic dissections and 2 cases of rapid atrial fibrillation).
Depending on the results of this study, the sanitary lockdown induced important repercussions on the patients followed for cardiac diseases, hence the necessity of an awareness of these patients, and mostly a restructuring of our care system strongly disturbed by the Covid 19.

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