We investigated the genetic causes of major mental disorders (MMDs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder I, major depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactive disorder, in a large family pedigree from Alpujarras, South of Spain, a region with high prevalence of psychotic disorders. We applied a systematic genomic approach based on karyotyping (n = 4), genotyping by genome-wide SNP array (n = 34) and whole-genome sequencing (n = 12). We performed genome-wide linkage analysis, family-based association analysis and polygenic risk score estimates. Significant linkage was obtained at chromosome 9 (9q33.1-33.2, LOD score = 4.11), a suggestive region that contains five candidate genes ASTN2, BRINP1, C5, TLR4 and TRIM32, previously associated with MMDs. Comprehensive analysis associated the MMD phenotype with genes of the immune system with dual brain functions. Moreover, the psychotic phenotype was enriched for genes involved in synapsis. These results should be considered once studying the genetics of psychiatric disorders in other families, especially the ones from the same region, since founder effects may be related to the high prevalence.© 2021. The Author(s).
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