One of the key components of ERAS is adequate pain control in the postoperative period. There are no rational schemes for postoperative pain relief. At the same time, adequate postoperative pain relief promotes early activation and early rehabilitation of patients and shortens the duration of the postoperative stay, and does not cause postoperative complications associated with analgesia (weakness, intestinal paresis, nausea and vomiting). The aims of the present study are to assess the possible association of and polymorphisms with the efficacy and safety of tramadol and ketorolac in postoperative pain.
A total of 107 patients were genotyped for and polymorphisms. All patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Postoperative pain relief was carried out with ketorolac and tramadol. Postoperative pain syndrome was assessed using a visual analogue scale and McGill pain questionnaire. The profile of side effects was assessed by the dynamics of red blood counts as a possible trigger for the development of gastrointestinal bleeding according to the method of global assessment of triggers.
Pain was statistically significantly lower in carriers, according to visual analogue scale (VAS): after 12 h – by 1.5 (p=0.002); after 24 h – by 1.1 (p=0.012); after 36 h – by 1.05 (p=0.004); after 48 h – by 0.7 (p=0.026). In carriers the results were not statistically significant. In carriers of pain syndromes were higher at all-time intervals, but statistically reliable results were obtained only after 2 h – by 1.01 (p=0.054) and after 24 h – by 0.8 (p=0.035). The profile of adverse reactions for NSAIDs was evaluated by the dynamics of hemoglobin and erythrocyte indices. A more pronounced decrease in the relative difference in hemoglobin levels was noted in and polymorphism carriers – by 1.7 (p=0.00268) and-by 2.2 (p=0.000143), respectively.
and can predict analgesic effectiveness of tramadol and ketorolac. can predict the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, including those hidden to ketorolac.

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