The prevalence and long-term consequences of differences in baseline cardiac geometry (as a result of hypertension) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are ill-defined. The primary purpose of this study was to clarify whether there were differences among sexual and racial groups in echocardiographic findings reflecting cardiac geometry and adaptation in patients undergoing PCI for ACS and whether this could explain the differences in outcomes seen between these groups.
We analyzed 1-year follow-up data from a single institution, a retrospective, observational study that enrolled 1,153 patients who presented with ACS and were treated with PCI, for whom echocardiographic data were available.
Normal, concentric hypertrophy, and eccentric hypertrophy in males vs. females were observed as follows: 29% vs. 19% ( = 0.001), 25% vs. 31% ( = 0.02), and 8% vs. 14% ( = 0.004), respectively. The primary endpoint of all-cause death ( = 89, 7.7%) occurred in 48 (10.5%) females and in 41 (8.2%) males, = 0.03. Major adverse cardiac events and bleeding (MACE-B – all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke or hospitalization for bleeding) was higher among women than men (21.6% vs. 13.5%, = 0.0002). Males with eccentric hypertrophy (EH) had similar MACE-B outcomes as females with EH 1-year post-PCI (29% vs. 32%, respectively, = 0.77).
Females undergoing PCI for ACS are at higher risk for worse outcomes because they are more likely to express the eccentric hypertrophy phenotype; however, it did not account for the difference in adverse outcomes observed between sexes.

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