This randomized cross-over study aimed to compare different algorithms for calculating prandial insulin considering the fat and protein content of a standardized meal in type 1 diabetes patients using insulin pump therapy (CSII).
Twenty-six patients received a standardized evening meal for three consecutive days using different algorithms for insulin dose adjustment: A) exclusive consideration of carbohydrate content without considering fat-protein content, B) high-dose algorithm considering additional insulin for fat protein units (FPUs) with the same factor as for carbohydrates, and C) low-dose algorithm considering additional insulin for FPUs with half the factor as for carbohydrates. The primary outcome was the proportion of interstitial glucose values in the target range (≥ 70 to ≤ 180 mg/dl) during the post-prandial 12-hour follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were the occurrence of hypo- and hyperglycemic episodes and the coverage with carbohydrates for treatment of hypoglycemia.
The percentage of glucose values in the target range was significantly higher when fat-protein content was not considered, whereas, in the hyperglycemic range, it did not differ significantly among the three groups. The percentage of hypoglycemic glucose values were the highest in the groups considering fat-protein content and lowest in the group not considering FPUs with no significant difference between the two groups in terms of FPUs.
In adult type 1 diabetes patients using CSII, it is not recommended to consider a high fat and protein content in the diet when calculating prandial insulin dosage with the selected algorithms, as this increases the risk of hypoglycemia disproportionately.

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