Fluid management in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) aims at the optimization of cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. In this study, we investigated the effects of hemodynamic management on brain oxygenation by integrating advanced hemodynamic and invasive neuromonitoring.
This observational cohort bi-center study included data of consecutive poor-grade SAH patients who underwent pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring and invasive neuromonitoring. Fluid management was guided by the transpulmonary thermodilution system and aimed at euvolemia (cardiac index, CI ≥ 3.0 L/min/m; global end-diastolic index, GEDI 680-800 mL/m; stroke volume variation, SVV < 10%). Patients were managed using a brain tissue oxygenation (PO) targeted protocol to prevent brain tissue hypoxia (BTH, PO < 20 mmHg). To assess the association between CI and PO and the effect of fluid challenges on CI and PO, we used generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measurements.
Among a total of 60 included patients (median age 56 [IQRs 47-65] years), BTH occurred in 23% of  the monitoring time during the first 10 days since admission. Overall, mean CI was within normal ranges (ranging from 3.1 ± 1.3 on day 0 to 4.1 ± 1.1 L/min/m on day 4). Higher CI levels were associated with higher PO levels (Wald = 14.2; p < 0.001). Neither daily fluid input nor fluid balance was associated with absolute PO levels (p = 0.94 and p = 0.85, respectively) or the occurrence of BTH (p = 0.68 and p = 0.71, respectively). PO levels were not significantly different in preload dependent patients compared to episodes of euvolemia. PO increased as a response to fluid boluses only if BTH was present at baseline (from 13 ± 6 to 16 ± 11 mmHg, OR = 13.3 [95% CI 2.6-67.4], p = 0.002), but not when all boluses were considered (p = 0.154).
In this study a moderate association between increased cardiac output and brain oxygenation was observed. Fluid challenges may improve PO only in the presence of baseline BTH. Individualized hemodynamic management requires advanced cardiac and brain monitoring in critically ill SAH patients.

© 2021. The Author(s).