Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) has been considered a significant cause of human reproductive failure in different studies; however, there is a considerable disagreement on the true impacts of HBV on female reproduction. This study has evaluated the impact of HBV infection on pregnancy complications in natural pregnancy and also on pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.
We searched Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases to identify the potentially relevant studies. Summary odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess the relationship. Heterogeneity testing, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias testing were also performed.
A total of 42 studies concerning the effect of HBV infection on the natural and IVF pregnancy were included in this study. Our meta-analysis results revealed that HBV infection had a positive correlation to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) [OR= 1.32 (1.17-1.48) (p<0.01)] and preterm birth [OR= 1.26 (1.14 to 1.40) (p<0.01)] in natural pregnancy; however, HBV infection was not significantly associated with decreased fertility rates among the patients who underwent IVF.
This study revealed a strong association of GDM and preterm birth with higher rates of HBV infection in pregnant women. Also, our results suggested that HBV infection in patients undergoing IVF may not negatively influence the pregnancy outcome. It may be rational to conclude that IVF might be rather a safe and effective method for HBV+ females who desire to have children.

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