The gut microbiota is the set of microorganisms present in the gut, and it is connected to the central nervous system via the gut-brain axis. Despite there is not a definitive description of the eubiotic microbiota architecture, numerous studies have demonstrated its involvement in human behaviour and its relationship with several pathologies. This is a systematic review about the association between dysbiosis on the gut microbiota and the presence of neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases such as cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ADHD, and depression. Furthermore, this study analyzes the potential benefits of psychobiotics supplementation for these pathologies. Searches were conducted in the electronic databases PubMed and PsycINFO. 17 articles were included in this review, the majority were published after 2019. The results showed that gut dysbiosis predicts the development of these pathologies and influences their pathogenesis. In addition, it was found that different psychobiotics, mainly dietary fibers and probiotics of the Lactobacillus family, improved different cognitive functions such as cognitive performance and induce a reduced cortisol response. Improvement in different cognitive functions is possible when understanding gut microbiota-brain axis, enteric nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system’s relationship.
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