Low back pain is the most common reason for physician visit in Western population. It’s one of the factors that affect health-related quality of life. Intervertebral disc degeneration is one of the leading factors for low back pain and disc degeneration needs serious attention. In this article, we try to summarize biomechanical factors on the degenerative process.
Patients with low back pain in Neurosurgery Department between January 2012 and June 2019 are searched for this study. The patients were gathered under 2 groups; surgical intervention and conservative treatment groups. Intervertebral disc degeneration was assessed by Pfirrmann grading system. All spinopelvic parameters were measured by using standardized lateral plain standing lumbar radiographs.
There were 165 patients in the surgical group (60 females, 105 males) and 84 patients in the conservative group (57 females, 27 males) after randomization. One hundred fifty patients had microdiscectomy and 15 patients had spinal instrumentation with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. There was not a statistically significant difference between surgical intervention and conservative treatment groups when comparing disc degeneration status. There was a statistically significant difference in parameters lumbar lordosis (LL), L4-S1, and pelvic incidence-LL (PI-LL) between the 2 treatment groups. In the surgical group when we further analyze the spinopelvic parameters in between the 2 different surgical techniques; L4-S1, pelvic tilt, and PI-LL showed a statistically significant difference.
Degenerative disc disease is related with multiple factors which can be detailed under the mechanic components and the genetic components. Of these factors, spinopelvic parameters seem highly penetrating to patients’ surgery needs with degenerative disc disease independently.