Although several studies have investigated the long-term association of respirable particulate matter (PM ≤ 10 µm) with the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), this association is inconclusive or even contradictory. This systematic review and meta-analysis study aimed to quantify the long-term effect of exposure to respirable PM on the incidence of MI. To find relevant publications, online databases, including Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, were searched on October 10, 2021. A random-effect model was used to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of MI across studies. Heterogeneity was presented with reporting I index. Of 4591 records found in the primary searching, the number of 24 prospective cohort studies with more than 70 million participants was included. The pooled HR (95% CI) of MI per 1 µg/m increment of respirable PM was estimated as 1.01 (1.00, 1.01). Subgroup analyses according to aerodynamic diameter of PM showed an only significant stronger risk of MI per 1 µg/m increase in PM with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.01). No sex difference was found in the association of respirable PM with MI incidence. There was only a significant association among studies defined MI as ICD-10: I21 code (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.01) and studies defined MI as ICD-10: I21-22 (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.04). No significant publication bias was observed across studies. In conclusion, this study confirms a significant association between long-term exposure to respirable PM air pollution and development of MI.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.