Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that is associated with negative metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, and psychological consequences among women of reproductive age. The diagnosis of PCOS remains challenging due to limited and conflicting evidence regarding definitions for each of the diagnostic features. This review of the recommended PCOS assessment criteria from the international evidence-based guideline highlights the crucial need to reassess, redefine, and optimize the diagnosis of PCOS. Notably, normal values and cut-offs need to be defined for each diagnostic feature across the lifespan and diverse ethnic groups. Understanding how these features cluster together and relate to short- and long-term health outcomes in PCOS is also vital. Ultimately, greater knowledge of the natural history of PCOS is needed through well-characterized, community-based longitudinal studies, which will inform future PCOS diagnosis guidelines and optimize women’s health in reproductive life.
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