Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) pose a great danger to society and now we have shreds of evidence for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) being one of the major causative agents for it. Though the prevalence of HPV varies throughout the world, it is gradually on the rise. The present systematic review aims to retrospect all the available studies on the prevalence of HPV in HNSCC in India and its clinicopathological aspect to study how it is different from HPV negative HNSCC.
An objective electronic database search was conducted in PUBMED Central, MeSH, NLM Catalog, Bookshelf, and PUBMED published in 25 years period from 1994 till 2019. A total of 33 articles were shortlisted for the present review.
Studies conducted across India show the prevalence of HPV in Head and Neck Cancers ranging from 0-86.6%. Some studies reported that HPV positive HNSCC is more common in younger age, presents with advanced stage disease, and more commonly presents with nodal metastasis. As opposed to western literature HPV positive HNSCC in India is associated with a well-differentiated tumor grade. There is no difference in treatment outcome and survival among HPV positive and negative HNSCC.
Exact prevalence of HPV in HNSCC is still doubtful but now we have some insight into it. The prevalence of HPV in Indian HNSCC patients has risen gradually but treatment outcome and survival may be poorer compared to other countries. However definite conclusions cannot be drawn without proper prospective study.

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