Apolipoprotein B is considered the primary protein constituent of low-density lipoprotein. LDL contains variable quantities of cholesterol, but each lipoprotein contains a single ApoB protein. Thus, ApoB is a better index for the LDL circulation if compared to LDL cholesterol. On the contrary, apolipoprotein A-1 is a main structural protein of high-density lipoprotein. It has a major role in reversing cholesterol flow and cellular cholesterol homeostasis once detected. The aim of the study is to measure apo B/apo A-1 ratio in patients with acute coronary syndrome and assess its relationship with the severity of CAD. A total of 90 patients were enrolled in the study and subdivided into 3 groups: 30 patients of STEMI, 30 patients of NSTEMI, and 30 patients presented with unstable angina. Serum levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and apolipoprotein B were properly measured upon admission, and apo B/apo A-1 ratio was calculated.
Both of Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio correlated significantly with Gensini scores (P value <0.001). High Gensini score patients had significantly high Apo B/Apo A1 ratio with the best cutoff value of 0.8 with sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 70%.
Apo B is an independent risk predictor for the severity of CAD in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Moreover, the Apo B/Apo A1 ratio remains highly significant in patients with high Gensini score.