Drug resistance is a well-known phenomenon leading to a reduction in the effectiveness of pharmaceutical treatments. Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents can involve various intrinsic cellular processes including drug efflux, increased resistance to apoptosis, increased DNA damage repair capabilities in response to platinum salts or other DNA-damaging drugs, drug inactivation, drug target alteration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), inherent cell heterogeneity, epigenetic effects, or any combination of these mechanisms. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) reverse ubiquitination of target proteins, maintaining a balance between ubiquitination and deubiquitination of proteins to maintain cell homeostasis. Increasing evidence supports an association of altered DUB activity with development of several cancers. Thus, DUBs are promising candidates for targeted drug development. In this review, we outline the involvement of DUBs, particularly ubiquitin-specific proteases, and their roles in drug resistance in different types of cancer. We also review potential small molecule DUB inhibitors that can be used as drugs for cancer treatment.
A positive nitrite test was an independent risk factor for invasive bacterial infections in infants under 90 days of age with fever without source.
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