In cancer treatments, smart gene delivery via nanoparticles (NPs) can be targeted for cancer cells, while concurrently minimizing damage to healthy cells. This study assessed the efficiency of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-miR 143/206 transfection on apoptosis in mouse leukemia cancer cells (El4) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs).
In this experimental study, neonatal mouse spermatogonia cells and EL4 cancer cell lines were used. MicroRNA-PLGA NPs were prepared, characterized, and targeted with folate. Several doses were evaluated to obtain a suitable miR dose that can induce appropriate apoptosis in EL4 cells, while not harming SSCs. Cells were treated separately at 3 doses of each miR (for miR 143, doses of 25, 50 and 75 nmol and for miR 206, doses of 50, 100 and 150 nmol). The experiments were performed at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Viability and apoptosis were investigated by MTT and Annexin Kits.
Based on MTT assay results, the optimal dose of miR 143 was 75 nmol (59.87 ± 2.85 % SSC and 35.3 ± 0.78 % EL4) (P≤0.05), and for miR 206, the optimal dose was 150 nmol (54.82 ± 6.7 % SSC and 33.92 ± 3.01% EL4) (P≤0.05). The optimal time was 48 hours. At these doses, the survival rate of the EL4 cells was below the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) and SSC survival was above 50%. Annexin V staining also confirmed the selected doses (for miR 143 total apoptosis was 6.62% ± 1.8 SSC and 37.4% ± 4.2 EL4 (P≤0.05), and miR 206 was (10.98% ± 1.5 SSC and 36.4% ± 3.7 EL4, P≤0.05).
Using intelligent transfection by NPs, we were able to induce apoptosis on EL4 cells and maintain acceptable SSC survival rates.

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