Vitamin D has been demonstrated a “neuroprotective” effect, but it is unclear whether early-life adequate vitamin D protect adverse neurodevelopment. We aimed to examine the role of neonatal vitamin D in the association of maternal depression (MD) symptoms with toddlers ADHD.
Participants included 1 125 mother-infant pairs from the China-Anhui Birth Cohort study. MD was assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at 30-34 gestational weeks. Toddlers ADHD was reported by the Conners’ Hyperactivity Index (CHI) at 48-54 months postpartum. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the association of maternal depressive score and toddlers ADHD while cord blood 25(OH)D levels were stratified.
Toddlers of mothers with higher depression score were at higher risk of ADHD (20.1% vs 11.1%, P = 0.003; adjusted RR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.10-2.81). Among toddlers with neonatal vitamin D deficiency (VDD), ADHD risk was significantly increased with maternal MD (adjusted RR=3.74, 95% CI: 1.49-9.41), but the association was not found in toddlers with neonatal vitamin D adequacy (VDA). Compared to toddlers without MD, toddlers with both MD and neonatal VDD had higher risk of ADHD (adjusted RR=3.10, 95% CI: 1.44-6.63). But the risk did not significantly increase in toddlers with MD and neonatal VDA (adjusted RR=1.53, 95% CI: 0.86-2.72).
Maternal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and anxious symptoms were needed to include.
This prospective study indicated that the detrimental effect of maternal prenatal depressive symptoms on offspring’s ADHD symptoms strengthened in toddlers with neonatal VDD.

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