Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated disease clinicopathologically characterized by esophageal dysfunction. EoE is characterized by eosinophilic histologic inflammation indistinguishable from other atopic diseases such as asthma, eczema, or allergic rhinitis, which often co-occur in patients with EoE. This suggest a possible shared pathophysiology and triggers in the development of EoE with other atopic conditions. Although the evidence of EoE being linked to exposure to allergenic foods is strong, the connection between EoE and aeroallergens is less understood. In this review, we will discuss clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies that investigate how environmental allergens influence the clinical manifestations of EoE and its seasonality. It is also known that the developing immune system is significantly shaped by early-life exposures, pollution, climate change, and those factors that are known to influence development of asthma. We therefore also describe the evidence for and the gaps in our knowledge of the role of early-life exposures, pollution, and climate change in the development of EoE.
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