Although many studies found an association between psychiatric disorders, especially major depressive disorder, and vitamin D deficiency, little is still known about the association between vitamin D and bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, the present review aims at providing an overview of the available literature exploring the role of vitamin D in BD patients in different phases of the disease.
From a bibliographic research in PubMed until April 2020, we collected ten original studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria.
No significant differences in vitamin D levels between BD patients and other psychiatric disorders were found by most of the studies. In the majority of the studies, the average values of vitamin D in BD population were sub-threshold for vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, although an association between vitamin D levels and clinical symptomatology was observed in BD patients, it cannot be considered a specific marker of this disorder but a common characteristic shared with other psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Finally, vitamin D supplementation was associated with a reduction in both depressive and manic symptoms.
Few studies with small and heterogeneous populations. Methodological heterogeneity in terms of vitamin D measurement and threshold.
The results showed that vitamin D status does not differ between BD and other psychiatric conditions. However, given the correlation between vitamin D levels and depressive or manic symptoms, we could hypothesize that an adequate vitamin D status could positively affect the mood balance thanks to its immunomodulatory activity.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.