Uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations collectively account for 10% of EGFR mutations, harboring heterogeneous molecular alterations within exons 18-21 with clinically variable responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients. In addition, with the introduction of different NGS gene approach an improvement of EGFR mutations detection was reported. Today, no specific studies have prospectively evaluated uncommon sensitizing mutations in detail and no firm standard of care has been established in the first-line setting. The aim of this comprehensive review is to critically consider the clinical role of uncommon EGFR mutations highlighting the results of several in vitro and in vivo studies, which singly evaluated the sensitivity of uncommon mutations to currently European of Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved EGFR TKIs in cell lines, xenograft models and humans, in order to obtain a practical guide for refining the clinical decision-making process.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.