Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Considerable experimental and clinical evidence suggests that both diabetes mellitus (DM) and post-stroke hyperglycemia are associated with increased mortality rate and worsened clinical conditions in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Insulin treatment does not seem to provide convincing benefits for these patients, therefore prompting a change of strategy. The selective agonists of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptors (GLP-1Ras) and the Inhibitors of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV (DPP-IVIs, gliptins) are two newer classes of glucose-lowering drugs used for the treatment of DM. This review examines in detail the rationale for their development and the physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and clinical activities. Emphasis will be placed on their neuroprotective effects at cellular and molecular levels in experimental models of acute cerebral ischemia. In perspective, an adequate basis does exist for a novel therapeutic approach to hyperglycemia in AIS patients through the additive treatment with GLP-1Ras plus DPP-IVIs.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.