Arboviruses are diseases of worldwide importance in the field of communicable diseases. In Brazil, the reemergence of dengue and the emergence of chikungunya and Zika since 2014 have led to epidemic waves of great magnitude and rapid spread. However, their diffusion patterns vary and change over time. This study analyzes the spatial diffusion of the simultaneous circulation of three arboviruses transmitted by the same vector in a large urban space over two epidemic waves in consecutive years. An ecological study of spatial and temporal aggregates on the occurrence of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, from 2014 to 2019, in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, was carried out using data of cases reported to the national surveillance system. Four different methods were used to analyze the spatial diffusion: Kernel Estimation with sequential maps, cumulative nearest-neighbor ratios (NNI) over time, spatial correlograms and local autocorrelation changes (LISA) over time. From 2014-2019, there were 21,723 confirmed cases of arboviruses. The highest incidences were among women (496.9, 220.2, and 91.0 cases/100,000 women for dengue, chikungunya and Zika respectively). By age group, the highest incidences were from ages 10-19 years old (609.3 dengue cases/100,000), from 60 and more (306.7 chikungunya cases/100,000), and from 0-9 years old (124.1 Zika cases/100,000 inhabitants). The temporal distribution demonstrated two epidemic waves of simultaneous circulation in 2014 and 2015. Kernel maps indicate that arboviruses spread to neighboring areas near the first hotspots, suggesting an expansion diffusion pattern. The NNI, spatial correlograms and LISA changes results suggest expansion patterns for the three arboviruses in all periods. The spatial diffusion pattern of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya in the 2014-2015 epidemics in Feira de Santana was expansion. These findings are useful to guide prevention measures and reduce occurrence in other areas.
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