This study aims to evaluate the exertional heat stroke score (EHSS) system for the prognosis of exertional heat stroke (EHS) patients.
Forty-two EHS patients who had been treated in our hospital between January 2017 and December 2019 were divided into two groups according to their prognosis, a survival group and a non-survival group. All the patients had received comprehensive EHS treatment after admission, and their EHSS parameters were collected within 24 h of admission, including body temperature, hepatorenal function, and coagulation function. A retrospective comparative evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the EHSS, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) in making an EHS prognosis.
Among 42 patients, 28 patients were treated successfully and discharged from the hospital, 5 were given a poor prognosis, and 9 died, amounting to a fatality rate of 21.42%. Univariate analysis showed that within 24 h of admission, the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the comparison of the following factors: lactate concentration, platelets, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, troponin, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, urinary creatinine, acute gastrointestinal injury, temperature, and Glasgow coma score. However, no statistically significant difference in blood pH was observed between the two groups of patients (p = 0.117). The EHSS, APACHE II, and SOFA scores of the survival group were significantly lower than those of the non-survival group (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the EHSS, APACHE II and SOFA scores were the area under the curve (AUC)  = 0.96 (0.901, 0.990), AUC = 0.895 (0.802, 0.950), and AUC = 0.884 (0.837, 0.964), respectively. Thus, the EHSS diagnostic efficacy of the survival group was significantly higher than that of the other two scores. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of EHSS were higher than those of the APACHE II and SOFA scores.
The EHSS has a good diagnostic efficacy for the prognosis of EHS patients and is significantly higher than that of the APACHE II and SOFA scores. This finding provides a theoretical basis for further increasing the rescue success rate of EHS patients and improving their prognostic quality of life.

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