The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Latin America brought to the fore longstanding concerns that forests bordering urban areas may provide a gateway for arbovirus spillback from humans to wildlife. To bridge urban and sylvatic transmission cycles, mosquitoes must co-occur with both humans and potential wildlife hosts, such as monkeys, in space and time. We deployed BG-Sentinel traps at heights of 0, 5, 10, and 15 m in trees in a rainforest reserve bordering Manaus, Brazil, to characterize the vertical stratification of mosquitoes and their associations with microclimate and to identify potential bridge vectors. Haemagogus janthinomys and Sabethes chloropterus, two known flavivirus vectors, showed significant stratification, occurring most frequently above the ground. Psorophora amazonica, a poorly studied anthropophilic species of unknown vector status, showed no stratification and was the most abundant species at all heights sampled. High temperatures and low humidity are common features of forest edges and microclimate analyses revealed negative associations between minimum relative humidity, which was inversely correlated with maximum temperature, and the occurrence of Haemagogus and Sabethes mosquitoes. In this reserve, human habitations border the forest while tamarin and capuchin monkeys are also common to edge habitats, creating opportunities for the spillback of mosquito-borne viruses.

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PubMed