Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common non-skin cancer with a tobacco consumption and infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) being major risk factors. Despite advances in numerous therapy modalities, survival rates for HNSCC have not improved considerably; a vast number of clinical outcomes have demonstrated that a combination strategy (the most well-known docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil) is the most effective treatment choice. Immunotherapy that targets immunological checkpoints is being tested in a number of clinical trials, either alone or in conjunction with chemotherapeutic or targeted therapeutic drugs. Various monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab and bevacizumab, which target the EGFR and VEGFR, respectively, as well as other signaling pathway inhibitors, such as temsirolimus and rapamycin, are also being studied for the treatment of HNSCC. We have reviewed the primary targets in active clinical studies in this study, with a particular focus on the medications and drug targets used.
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