We reported a novel function of recombinant human thrombopoietin (TPO) in increasing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) homing to the bone marrow (BM). Single doses of TPO treatment to the recipients immediately after BM transplantation showed significantly improved homing of HSPCs to the BM, which subsequently resulted in enhanced short- and long-term engraftment of HSPCs in mice. We found that TPO could downregulate the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in BM cells. As a result, SDF-1α level was increased in the BM niche. Blocking the interaction of SDF-1α and CXCR4 on HSPCs by using AMD3100 could significantly reverse the TPO-enhanced HSPC homing effect. More importantly, a single dose of TPO remarkably promoted human HSPC homing and subsequent engraftment to the BM of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. We then performed a clinical trial to evaluate the effect of TPO treatment in patients receiving haploidentical BM and mobilized peripheral blood transplantation. Surprisingly, single doses of TPO treatment to patients followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation significantly improved platelet engraftment in the cohort of patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The mean volume of platelet and red blood cell transfusion was remarkably reduced in the cohort of patients with SAA or hematological malignancies receiving TPO treatment. Thus, our data provide a simple, feasible, and efficient approach to improve clinical outcomes in patients with allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The clinical trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry website (www.chictr.org.cn) as ChiCTR-OIN-1701083.
© 2020 The Authors. STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.