The thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) romiplostim, eltrombopag, avatrombopag, and lusutrombopag carry unique US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)- and European Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved indications and may be used to increase platelet counts in a variety of conditions. Current indications for available TPO-RAs include treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in cases of insufficient response to prior treatment (avatrombopag, eltrombopag, romiplostim), management of thrombocytopenia in adult patients with chronic liver disease who are scheduled to undergo a procedure (avatrombopag, lusutrombopag), management of severe aplastic anemia (eltrombopag), and management of thrombocytopenia associated with interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C (eltrombopag). Across current indications, pharmacists can assist in stabilizing platelet counts and help to reduce large undulations commonly seen when starting, stopping, or transitioning between these agents. If therapy modifications may benefit the patient, pharmacists should discuss possible changes with the patient’s treatment team or treating physician. When used for ITP, romiplostim, eltrombopag, and avatrombopag stimulate TPO receptors on hematopoietic stem cells (also known as c-Mpl, or CD110) to promote platelet production; however, romiplostim is the only TPO-RA that binds at the same site as endogenous TPO. These subtle mechanistic differences may explain why switching TPO-RA may be clinically advantageous in some situations. As pharmacists are called to counsel patients on TPO-RA use, a deep understanding of potential adverse events and management strategies, as well as appropriate monitoring, will increase the likelihood that patients meet their goals of therapy in the shortest timeframe. Other uses of TPO-RAs are also discussed in this review, including use following hematopoietic stem cell transplant, use in myelodysplastic syndrome, and use in chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.