Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide, representing a major health, social, and economic issue. Thyroid disorders are very common and affect >10% of the adult population in total. The aim of this review is to describe the physiologic role of thyroid hormones on cardiovascular system, to present cardiovascular manifestations in patients with thyroid disorders, emphasizing in molecular mechanisms and biochemical pathways, and to summarize current knowledge of treatment options. Thyroid hormone receptors are located both in myocardium and vessels, and changes in their concentrations affect cardiovascular function. Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, both clinical and subclinical, without the indicated therapeutical management, may contribute to the progression of CVD. According to recent studies, even middle changes in thyroid hormones levels increase cardiovascular mortality from 20% to 80%. In more details, thyroid disorders seem to have serious effects on the cardiovascular system via plenty mechanisms, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, systolic and diastolic myocardial dysfunction, as well endothelial dysfunction. On top of clinical thyroid disorders management, current therapeutics focus on younger patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and elderly patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.