The Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 led to a sharp increase in thyroid cancer (TC) incidence in the individuals exposed to radiation in childhood. The major risk factor for TC was exposure to Iodine-131 (131I). Here, we estimated the thyroid doses due to 131I intake for 2041 participants of the genome-wide association study of TC in Belarusian people exposed to radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The following parameter-values specially developed in this study were used to estimate individual thyroid doses: (i) scaling factors for adjustment of the model-based doses, (ii) age and gender diet to characterize 131I intake, and (iii) area-, age- and gender-specific S-values for the thyroid gland per 131I decay in the thyroid. The most reliable doses were calculated for 103 people with measured 131I thyroid activity (the arithmetic mean of 1.2 Gy, median 0.52 Gy), and 275 individuals with detailed residential history and dietary data (the arithmetic mean of 0.41 Gy, median 0.24 Gy). The arithmetic mean of thyroid doses among all study participants was 0.23 Gy (median 0.082 Gy); the highest individual dose was 9.0 Gy. Special attention was paid to the reliability and validity of the obtained estimates, in particular for the individuals without 131I thyroid activity measurements and individual data on residential history and diet, by comparing those with the doses from other post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies. Overall, the doses estimated in the current study were in reasonable agreement with previously reported thyroid doses. These doses will be used in the genome-wide association study of TC in people exposed in Belarus to 131I after the Chernobyl accident.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology 2021.
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