The optimal follow-up duration and frequency following hypospadias repair is unclear within the pediatric urology community. This analysis aims to delineate the time to various complications following primary hypospadias repairs.
A retrospective review of a single-surgeon hypospadias database over 2001-2017 was performed. The primary outcome of the study was determining the significant factors leading to complications over time. As a secondary outcome, subgroup analysis was performed to determine whether there was a significant difference in time to detecting voiding-related complications (fistula, stricture/stenosis, and diverticulum) based on age.
Eight hundred and thirty-two patients were identified. The complication rates for distal, midshaft, and proximal hypospadias were 17.9% (112/625), 36.7% (40/109), and 55.1% (49/89), respectively (p < 0.0001). Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves showed significance in three variables for time to complication: hypospadias severity (p < 0.0001), technique (p  30° (p < 0.0001). Cox-regression analysis showed that hypospadias severity and penile curvature were significantly contributing to the model (p < 0.0001, p = 0.044). Patients with proximal hypospadias and penile curvature developed complications earlier than other patients, with approximately 95% of complications occurring within 2 years.
Complications from repair of proximal hypospadias with curvature > 30° are likely to occur within 2 years of surgery. Surgeons may consider more frequent follow-up within the first 2 years of surgery to detect these complications.