Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) could be harnessed as an immunotherapeutic cancer vaccine. These nanovesicles are inherently possesses rich tumor antigen reservoirs. Due to their undesirable features such as poor or limited immunogenicity as well as facilitation of cancer development via mediating communication between tumor cells TEXs could be transformed into an effective immune adjuvant delivery system that initiates a strong humoral and cell-mediated tumor-specific immune response. Engineering TEXs to harbor immunostimulatory molecules still remains a challenge. Previously, we demonstrated that nucleic acid ligand encapsulated liposomes could trigger synergistic strong humoral, and cell mediated immune responses and provokes tumor regression to that of their standalone counterparts. In this study, we evaluated to immunogenicity of 4T1/Her2 cell-derived exosomes upon loading them with two potent immuno adjuvant, a TLR9 ligand, K-type CpG ODN and a TLR3 ligand, p(I:C). Engineered TEXs co-encapsulating both ligands displayed boosted immunostimulatory properties by activating antigen-specific primary and memory T cell responses. Furthermore, our exosome-based vaccine candidate elicited robust Th1-biased immunity as evidenced by elevated secretion of IgG2a and IFNγ. In a therapeutic cancer model, administration of4T1 tumor derived exosomes loaded with CpG ODN and p(I:C) to animals regress tumor growth in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. Taken together this work implicated that an exosome-based therapeutic vaccine promoted strong cellular and humoral anti-tumor immunity that is sufficient to reverse established tumors. This approach offers a personalized tumor therapy strategy that could be implemented in the clinic.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.