Patients with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) have an increased risk of fracture. Little is known about the microarchitecture of trabecular bone in T1DM, which may account for some of the increased risk. We report here a secondary analysis comparing Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) derived from DXA to 2-D histomorphometric and 3-D micro-computerized tomography (CT) variables obtained from iliac biopsies in 83 subjects (29 T1DM and 54 controls). The transilial bone biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded and scanned using a desktop micro-CT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed. TBS of the anterior/posterior (AP) spine was obtained by re-analysis of AP lumbar spine DXA images. Overall, there were no differences in TBS, histomorphometry or micro-CT measurements between T1DM and controls. There was a significant association between TBS and 2-D BV/TV using multivariable linear regression after adjusting for group, age and gender. For every 1 unit increase in 2-D BV/TV, TBS increases by 0.0036 units after adjusting for group, gender and age. In conclusion, T1DM does not result in abnormal TBS, histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in young T1DM patients in the absence of diabetic complications. TBS is a good surrogate measure for trabecular microarchitecture.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.