The purpose was to evaluate the impact of intra-operative administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) and pre-operative discontinuation of prophylactic chemoprophylaxis in patients undergoing internal fixation of pelvic or acetabular fractures on the need for subsequent blood transfusion. Operative time and the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were also assessed.
Data from a single level one trauma centre was retrospectively reviewed from January 2014 to December 2017 to identify pelvic ring or acetabular fractures managed operatively. Patients who did not receive their scheduled dose of chemoprophylaxis prior to surgery but who did receive intra-operative TXA were identified as the treatment group. Due to the interaction of VTE prophylaxis and TXA, the variables were analyzed using an interaction effect to account for administration of both individually and concomitantly.
One hundred fifty-nine patients were included. The treatment group experienced a 20.7% reduction in blood product transfusion (regression coefficient (RC): - 0.207, p = 0.047, 95%CI: - 0.412 to - 0.003) and an average of 36 minutes (RC): - 36.90, p = 0.045, 95%CI: - 72.943 to - 0.841) reduction in surgical time as compared to controls. The treatment group did not experience differential rates of PE or DVT (RC: 1.302, p = 0.749, 95%CI: 0.259-6.546) or PE (RC: 1.024, p = 0.983, 95%CI: 0.114-9.208).
In the study population, the combination of holding pre-operative chemoprophylaxis and administering intra-operative TXA is a safe and effective combination in reducing operative time and blood product transfusions.