Transvenous electrical cardioversion (TVEC) is 1 of the main treatment options for atrial fibrillation (AF) in horses. Large-scale studies on factors affecting success and prognosis have primarily been performed in Standardbred populations.
To determine factors affecting cardioversion success, cardioversion difficulty and recurrence in a predominant Warmblood study sample.
TVEC records of 199 horses.
Retrospective study of TVEC procedures of horses admitted for AF without severe echocardiographic abnormalities. Horse and procedural factors for success and cumulative amount of energy (≤ 600 J vs > 600 J) were determined using multivariable logistic regression. A survival analysis was performed to determine risk factors for recurrence.
Two hundred and thirty-one TVEC procedures were included, with a 94.4% success rate and 31.9% recurrence rate (51/160). Mitral regurgitation (OR 0.151, 95% CI 0.032-0.715, P = .02) and AF cycle length (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09, P = .02) were independent determinants for success. Catheter type (OR 0.154, 95% CI 0.074-0.322, P < .001), previous AF episode (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.20-8.01, P = .02), tricuspid regurgitation (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.25-5.13, P = .01), and body weight (OR 1.009, 95% CI 1.003-1.015, P = .004) were significantly correlated with cumulative amount of energy delivered. Significant risk factors for recurrence after a first AF episode were sex (stallion; HR 3.05, 95% CI 1.34-6.95, P = .008), mitral regurgitation (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.08-3.38, P = .03), and AF duration (HR 1.001, 95% CI 1.0001-1.0026, P = .04).
Both horse and procedural factors should be considered when assessing treatment options and prognosis in horses with AF.

© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.