The effects of infection with Toxoplasma gondii vary from asymptomatic to the development of alterations in various organs (including the liver and kidneys) which may be irreversible, and lead to the death of the host. Whereas homeopathy is an alternative and effective method for treating various diseases, including those caused by protozoa, we questioned the effect of using Lycopodium clavatum in mice infected with T. gondii. One hundred male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were divided into four groups (n = 25/group): NIC (uninfected and untreated control), IC (infected and treated with un-dynamized 7% alcohol solution [vehicle]), G48 (infected and treated 48 h before infection and treated three more times; at 2, 4, and 6 days post-infection (dpi) with L. clavatum 200dH), and G72 (infected and treated for 3 consecutive days before infection with L. clavatum 200dH). In this study, physiological, histopathological, and immunological parameters were evaluated. The L. clavatum 200dH intensified renal damage in mice infected with T. gondii from 7 dpi, causing severe and progressive alterations during this period, such as various degrees of inflammation, edema, atrophy, and tubular cystic dilation, degenerated tubules with intra-cytoplasmic vacuoles and coalescing spots, severe vascular lesions, glomerulonephritis, and peri-glomerular congestion. In the G72 animals, which received L. clavatum 200dH, more severe cortex damage was observed (91.66-96.66%) as compared to the IC group (55-80%) and more renal corpuscle, and renal tubule injury was observed (80 ± 5 to 96.7% ± 2.89 of the total area) during all periods, as compared to the IC group (p < 0.05). Both groups presented high liver enzyme levels, and the highest values for AST were observable at 60 dpi. We observed significant increases of type I and III collagen, as well as high levels of TGF-β1 in both organs of the treated animals, the main factor involved in fibrosis in areas damaged by the process. L. clavatum 200dH intensifies kidney and liver alterations in mice infected with T. gondii. Our results reinforce caution when indicating administration schemes and dosages for ultra-diluted drugs.
February 17, 2020
Fatal accident involving a welder employed by a shipping container company, associated with the use of tramadol and antidepressant agents.
July 2, 2020
Negative and disorganized symptoms mediate the relationship between verbal learning and global functioning in adolescents with early-onset psychosis.
February 10, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
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