To investigate whether the treatment zone (TZ) decentration in orthokeratology (OK) lenses affects retinal expansion in Chinese children with myopia.
Children aged 8 to 13 years (n = 30) were assessed over 13 months comprising 12 months of OK lens wear followed by discontinuation of lens wear for 1 month. Corneal topography was measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 13 months. TZ decentration of the OK lens was calculated, and subjects were subdivided into a small decentration group (group S) and a large decentration group (group L) based on the median value of the weighted average decentration (d ). Central axial length (AL) and peripheral eye lengths (PELs) at the central retina, as well as 10°, 20° and 30° nasally and temporally were measured at 0 and 13 months under cycloplegia. Second-order polynomial (y = ax  + bx + c) and linear fits (y = Kx + B) were applied to the peripheral relative eye length (PREL), and the coefficients ‘a’ and ‘K’ were used to describe the shape of the eye.
Mean AL growth for one year was 0.28 ± 0.17 mm. In a multiple linear regression model, AL elongation was related to the baseline age (β = -0.41, p = 0.01) and the d (β = -0.37, p = 0.03) (R  = 0.34, p = 0.002). When compared with smaller d (0.45 ± 0.15 mm), a larger d (0.89 ± 0.17 mm) was associated with slower ocular growth (central: 0.20 ± 0.13 mm vs. 0.35 ± 0.17 mm, p = 0.009; 10° nasal: 0.26 ± 0.18 mm vs. 0.45 ± 0.21 mm, p = 0.02; 10° temporal: 0.17 ± 0.14 mm vs. 0.32 ± 0.19 mm, p = 0.02) and more oblate retina shape (‘a’: -0.13 ± 0.02 vs. -0.14 ± 0.02, p = 0.02; K : 0.35 ± 0.11 vs. 0.39 ± 0.09, p = 0.02; K : -0.42 ± 0.08 vs. -0.46 ± 0.08, p = 0.004).
Greater TZ decentration with the use of OK lenses was associated with slower axial growth and a more oblate retinal shape. TZ decentration caused local defocusing changes, which may inhibit myopic progression. These findings may have important implications for improving optical designs for myopia control.

© 2022 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.