To evaluate the trends in hospitalizations for children with trisomy 18 over time and to determine the rate of invasive procedures on these children, using a large inpatient database.
A retrospective analysis using the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) from 1997- 2016 was performed for trisomy 18. We evaluated survival to discharge as well as the presence of pulmonary, skeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, renal, hematologic/bleeding problems. We also searched for the following interventions, if performed: gastrostomy tube placement, tracheostomy, or cardiac procedure.
Over this period 10,151 admissions occurred in children with a diagnosis of trisomy 18. Between 1997 and 2016 the number of children admitted annually with trisomy 18 increased 74% from 1,036 to 1,798. The proportion of patients born prematurely remained stable at 14 to 16% throughout the study. Gastrostomy tube placement increased 12-fold during the study period, tracheostomy increased 11-fold, and cardiac intervention increased 5-fold. The overall mortality rate decreased in those with trisomy 18 from 32% in 1997 to 21% in 2016.
We highlight a decreased inpatient mortality rate during the study period. The number of children undergoing interventions such as gastrostomy tube and tracheostomy increased, as did the number of children undergoing cardiac intervention. Although the number of procedures has increased with the mortality rate decreasing, it is unclear at present whether the two are related.

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