Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine has been proved to be an effective way in cancer immunotherapy in both preclinical and clinical studies. However, limitations in DC isolation and culture have hampered its practice and promoted the development of other antigen-presenting cells (APCs) sources to fulfill that role. Our previous studies have shown that B cells loaded by tumor cell-derived autophagosomes, which we named as DRibbles (defective ribosomal products-containing blebs), could reactivate DC-induced effector T cell response. In this study, the roles of DRibble-loaded B cells in priming naïve CD8 T cell responses and controlling tumors were investigated. We found that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) on DRibbles was involved in DRibble-induced B cell activation, and the DRibble-triggered B cell phagocytosis via the caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathway. By using OT-I mouse-derived T cells, we demonstrated that DRibble-loaded B cells could activate specific naïve CD8 T cells in vitro and ex vivo. In a tumor-bearing mouse model, DRibble-loaded B cells elicited systemic antitumor immunity and significantly suppressed the tumor growth. Moreover, the antitumor efficacy of DRibble-loaded B cells was enhanced when they were combined with CpG and anti-CD40 stimulation. These results suggest that DRibble-loaded B cells represent a viable and practical therapeutic vaccination strategy that might have important clinical implications for tumor immunotherapy.
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