Recently, a modified intermittent fasting protocol was demonstrated to be able to maintain muscle mass and strength, decrease fat mass and improve some inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy resistance-trained males after 2 months. The present study sought to investigate the long-term effects on these parameters.
The experiment is a single-blind randomized study. Twenty healthy subjects were enrolled and underwent 12 months of either a time-restricted eating (TRE) diet or a normal diet (ND) protocol, along with resistance training. In the TRE protocol, subjects consumed their energy needs in 3 meals during an 8-h period of time each day (1 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m). Subjects in the normal diet (ND) group also had three meals, which were consumed at 8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 8 p.m. Groups were matched for kilocalories consumed and macronutrient distribution at baseline.
After 12 months of TRE, body mass, fat mass, IGF-1 and testosterone were significantly lower compared to ND. Moreover, inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α), insulin sensitivity (fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR) and lipid profile (cholesterol, HDL and LDL) significantly improved after TRE compared to ND. Finally, subjects in TRE spontaneously decreased their daily energy intake whilst ND maintained their starting kcal/day. No adverse events were reported.
Our results suggest that long-term TRE combined with a resistance training program is feasible, safe and effective in reducing inflammatory markers and risk factors related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

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