Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica (ACD) is a rare variant of cutaneous amyloidosis. This disorder often clusters in families, and it has been suggested that genetic factors might be involved in its development.
To identify the genetic causes of ACD, we recruited a consanguineous Pakistani family with multiple cases of ACD that display a recessive mode of inheritance.
We performed whole-exome sequencing of samples from 7 members of this family, followed by bioinformatic and in silico analyses to identify the causative variant. For the replication study, we recruited a British family with Pakistani ancestry, and sequenced all exons of glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein b (GPNMB) to identify mutations. We also investigated effects of the mutations on the stability of the GPNMB protein using the I-TASSER three-dimensional modeling tool.
We found a novel homozygous mutation, p.Gly363Val (c.1088 G>T), in GPNMB in all affected cases. In a replication study, another homozygous missense mutation in GPNMB, pIle174Met (c.522 C>G), was carried by the affected son. The two mutations were not observed in our in-house data set comprising 217 healthy Pakistani individuals or in The Genome Aggregation Database. Our structural modeling of GPNMB suggested that p.Gly363Val enhanced its stability, whereas p.Ile174Met caused instability.
This study reports two novel missense mutations in two Pakistani families that cause ACD. The mutations appear to influence GPNMB stability, as revealed by protein modeling.