Adropin (ADR) plays a role in metabolism regulation and its alterations in obesity and diabetes have been found. Treatment with ADR was beneficial in metabolic diseases, and physical exercise increased ADR concentrations in obese patients. However, data on the distribution of ADR in the brain are sparse. The role of metabolic status and physical exercise on its expression in the brain is undiscovered. We hypothesized that diabetes type 2 (DM2) and/or exercise will alter number of ADR-immunoractive (-ir) cells in the rat brain. Animals were divided into groups: diabetes type 2 (receiving high-fat diet and injections of streptozotocin) and control (fed laboratory chow diet; C). Rats were further divided into: running group (2 weeks of forced exercise on a treadmill) and non-running group. Body mass, metabolic and hormonal profiles were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was run to study ADR-ir cells in the brain. We found that: 1) in DM2 animals, running decreased insulin and increased glucose concentrations; 2) in C rats, running decreased insulin concentrations and had no effect on glucose concentration in blood; 3) running increased corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in DM2 and C rats; 4) ADR-ir cells were detected in the hippocampus and ADR-ir fibers in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, which is a novel location; 5) metabolic status and running, however, did not change number of these cells. We concluded that 2 weeks of forced moderate intensity locomotor training induced stress response present as increased concentration of CORT and did not influence number of ADR-ir cells in the brain.
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