Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory joint disease leading to inflammation of synovial membrane that lines the joints. This inflammation further progresses and results in destruction of joints and surrounding cartilages. The underlying factors can be oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory mediators, imbalance and attenuation between various enzymes and proteins (like nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2/Nrf2 and ubiquitin). Protein degradation pathways comprises of lysosomal, proteasomal pathway, and autophagosome (that are carried out in mammalian cells) are regulated through ubiquitin. Ubiquitin proteasomal system is dominating pathway for carrying out non-lysosomal proteolysis of intracellularly proteins. Fundamental processes including cell cycle progression, process of division, apoptosis, modulation of immune responses and cell trafficking are regulated by process of ubiquitination. Ubiquitin proteasomal pathway (UPP) includes ubiquitin moieties which are covalently attached to proteins and guides them proteasome for degradation. Misfolded, oxidized and damaged proteins which are responsible for critical processes, are major targets of degradation process. Any alteration in this system leads to dysregulated cellular homeostasis; progressively leading to numerous diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Factors including TAK1, TRAF6 undergo are required for the progression of disease and thus contributes towards pathology of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. This review will include all linked aspects which contribute its major role in rheumatoid arthritis.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.