Paired RCC and adjacent normal tissue samples were collected from 24 patients with RCC. V3-V4 variable region of microbial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing reads were processed using QIIME. Differentially abundant bacterial taxa between groups were identified by LEfSe, and their potential functions were inferred by PICRUSt.
Decreased species diversity was presented in RCC tissues (Simpson index, P = 0.0340), and the composition of the bacterial community in RCC tissues was significantly distinct from that in normal tissues (unweighted UniFrac distance, P = 0.026; weighted UniFrac distance, P = 0.017). Compared with normal tissues, 25 taxa increased and 47 reduced taxa were identified in RCC tissues. Among these taxa, the class Chloroplast (AUC = 0.91, P < 0.0001) and the order Streptophyta (AUC = 0.89, P < 0.0001) showed high indication accuracy to discriminate RCC tissues from normal tissues. Furthermore, nine altered pathways were identified in RCC tissues to reveal the potential microbial function.
Our results have uncovered the presence of distinct microbiota in RCC and adjacent normal tissues and provided a better understanding of the possible role of the intratumoral microbiota in RCC. Further studies are required to confirm our results and determine the real correlation between microbiota and RCC.