This study intended to identify and quantify the social ecological model (SEM) levels associated to seasonal IV uptake in the Portuguese elderly population. Data from the 2014 National Health Survey was restricted to individuals aged 65+ years (n = 5669). Twenty-three independent variables were allocated to the SEM levels: individual, interpersonal, organizational, community and policy. Sex stratified and age adjusted analysis using Poisson regression were performed for each level and for a fitted full model. Relative reduction in pseudo R magnitude measured marginal contribution of each level. For men and women, older groups (85+ vs. 65-69; men, PR = 1.59 and women, PR = 1.56); having 3+ chronic conditions (men, PR = 1.39 and women, PR = 1.35); previous 4 weeks GP and outpatient visits were associated to higher IV uptake. For men, only 2 SEM levels were associated (individual and organizational) while for women the community level was also relevant. Main marginal contribution came from individual (17.9% and 16.3%) and organizational (30.7% and 22.7%) levels. This study highlights the importance of individual characteristics, access and use of health care services for the IV uptake and the sex differential behaviour.
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