Experimental animal studies have revealed mechanisms that link cortical spreading depression (CSD) to the trigeminal activation mediating lateralized headache. However, conventional CSD as seen in lissencephalic brain is insufficient to explain some clinical features of aura and migraine headache.
The importance of CSD in headache development including dysfunction of the thalamocortical network, neuroinflammation, calcitonin gene-related peptide, transgenic models, and the role of CSD in migraine triggers, treatment options, neuromodulation and future directions are reviewed.
The conventional understanding of CSD marching across the hemisphere is invalid in gyrencephalic brains. Thalamocortical dysfunction and interruption of functional cortical network systems by CSD, may provide alternative explanations for clinical manifestations of migraine phases including aura. Not all drugs showing CSD blocking properties in lissencephalic brains, have efficacy in migraine headache and monoclonal antibodies against CGRP ligand/receptors which are effective in migraine treatment, have no impact on aura in humans or CSD properties in rodents. Functional networks and molecular mechanisms mediating and amplifying the effects of limited CSD in migraine brain remain to be investigated to define new targets.